Various Sounding Diagnostic Parameters
Wind Damage Parameter (WNDG)
A non-dimensional composite parameter that identifies area where large CAPE, steep low-level lapse rates,
enhanced flow in the low-mid levels, and minimal convective inhibition are co-located. The parameter is formulated
WNDG = (MLCAPE / 2000 J kg-1) * (0-3 km lapse rate / 9 C km-1) * (1000-3500 m AGL mean wind /
15 m s-1) * ((50 + MLCIN) / 40 J kg-1)
where 0-3 km lapse rate < 7 is set to zero, and MLCIN < -50 J kg-1 is set to -50.
WNDG values > 1 favor an enhanced risk for scattered damaging outflow gusts with multicell thunderstorm clusters,
primarily during the afternoon in the summer.
Enhanced Stretching Potential (ESP)
This composite parameter identifies areas where low-level buoyancy and
steep low-level lapse rates are co-located, which may favor low-level vortex stretching and tornado potential.
ESP is formulated as follows:
ESP = (0-3 km MLCAPE / 50 J kg-1) * ((0-3 km lapse rate - 7.0) / 1.0 C km-1)
where ESP is set to zero when the 0-3 km lapse rate is < 7 C km-1, or
when the total MLCAPE < 250 J kg-1.
MCS Maintenance Probability (MMP)
The probability that a mature MCS will maintain peak intensity for the next hour. Please see
for additional information from Mike Coniglio (NSSL).
Theta-E Index (TEI)
TEI is the difference between the surface theta-e and the minimum theta-e value in the
lowest 400 mb AGL.