Inferred Temperature Advection versus Height

Vertical plot of inferred temperature advection (C/hr). By assuming geostrophic flow and thermal wind balance, layers where winds "veer" with height infer warm advection (dark pink), and layers where winds "back" with height infer cold advection (dark cyan). The assumption of geostrophic flow is often violated near the ground due to frictional effects, while flow aloft often varies from geostrophy in proximity to intense jet streaks and in regions of strong curvature in the flow (base of troughs and crest of ridges). The estimates of thermal advection may not be particularly accurate because of the many inherent assumptions, but the plot does provide a quick means of identifying layers where veering/backing winds are occuring, and thermal advection may be significant.