REFERENCES

(Topics arranged alphabetically)


Bow echoes and their environments - BAMEX 2003 studies

Davis, C., N. Atkins, D. Bartels, L. Bosart, M. Coniglio, G. Bryan, W. Cotton, D. Dowell, B. Jewett, R. Johns, D. Jorgensen, J. Knievel, K. Knupp, W-C. Lee, G. McFarquhar, J. Moore, R. Przybylinski, R. Rauber, B. Smull, R. Trapp, S. Trier, R. Wakimoto, M. Weisman, and C. Ziegler, 2004: The bow echo and MCV experiment: Observations and opportunities. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 85, 1075-1093.

Trier, S.B. and C. A. Davis, 2007: Mesoscale convective vortices observed during BAMEX. Part II: Influences on secondary deep convection. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 2051-2075.

Wakimoto, R. M., H. V. Murphy, A. Nester, D. P. Jorgensen, and N. T. Atkins, 2006: High winds generated by bow echoes. Part I: Overview of the Omaha bow echo July 2003 storm during BAMEX. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 134, 2793-2812.

Wakimoto, R. M., H. V. Murphy, C. A. Davis, and N. T. Atkins, 2006: High winds generated by bow echoes. Part II: The relationship between the mesovortices and damaging straight line winds. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 134, 2813-2829.

Wheatley, D. M., R. J. Trapp, and N. T. Atkins, 2006: Radar and damage analysis of severe bow echoes during BAMEX. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 134, 791-806.



Bow echoes and their environments - Observational studies

Burgess, D. W., and B. F. Smull, 1990: Doppler radar observations of a bow echo with a long-track severe windstorm. Preprints, 16th Conf. on Severe Local Storms , Kananaskis Park, AB, Canada, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 203-208.

Businger, S., T. Birchard, K. Kodama, P. A. Jendrowski, and J. -J. Wang, 1998: A bow echo and severe weather associated with a Kona low in Hawaii. Wea. Forecasting, 13, 576-591.

Hamilton, R. E., 1970: Use of detailed radar data in mesoscale surface analysis of the July 4, 1969 storm in Ohio. Preprints, 14th Radar Meteorology Conf., Tucson, AZ, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 339-342.

Johns, R. H. 1993: Meteorological conditions associated with bow echo development in convective storms. Wea. Forecasting, 8, 294-299.

Jorgensen, D. P., and B. F. Smull, 1993: Mesovortex circulations seen by airborne Doppler radar within a bow-echo mesoscale convective system. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 74, 2146-2157.

Keene, K. M., and R. Schumacher, 2013: The bow and arrow convective structure. Mon. Wea. Rev., 141, 1648-1672.

Leduc, M., and P. Joe, 1993: Bow echo storms near Toronto Canada associated with very low buoyant energies. Preprints, 17th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, St. Louis, MO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 573-576.

Lee, W. -C., R. M. Wakimoto, and R. E. Carbone, 1992: The evolution and structure of a "bow-echo-microburst" event. Part II: The bow echo. Mon Wea. Rev., 120, 2211-2225.

Schmid, W., H. Schiesser, M. Furger, and M. Jenni, 2000: The origin of severe winds in a tornadic bow-echo storm over northern Switzerland. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 192-207.

Staudenmaier, M.J. and S. Cunningham, 1996: An examination of a dynamic cold season bow echo in California. NWS Western Region Technical Attachment 96-10.



Case studies

Alfonso, A. P., and L. R. Naranjo, 1996: The 13 March 1993 severe squall line over western Cuba . Wea. Forecasting, 11, 89-102.

Atkins, N. T., J. M. Arnott, R. W. Przybylinski, R. A. Wolf, and B. D. Ketcham. 2004: Vortex structure and evolution within bow echoes. Part I: Single-doppler and damage analysis of the 29 June 1998 derecho. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132, 2224–2242.

Bentley, M. L., 1997: Synoptic conditions favorable for the formation of the 15 July 1995 southeastern Canada/northeastern U.S. derecho event. Nat. Wea. Digest, 21, No. 2, 31-39.

Bosart, L. F., W. E. Bracken, A. Seimon, J. W. Cannon, K. D. LaPenta, and J. S. Quinlan, 1998: Large-scale conditions associated with the northwesterly flow intense derecho events of 14-15 July 1995 in the northeastern United States. Preprints, 19th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Minneapolis, MN, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 503-506.

Cannon, J. W., K. D. LaPenta, J. S. Quinlan, L. F. Bosart, W. E. Bracken, and A. Seimon, 1998: Radar characteristics of the 15 July 1995 northeastern U. S. derecho. Preprints, 19th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Minneapolis, MN, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 400-443.

Coniglio, M. C., S. F. Corfidi, and J. S. Kain, 2011: Environment and early evolution of the 8 May 2009 derecho-producing convective system. Mon. Wea. Rev.,139, 1083-1102.

Cooper, S. R., and M. L. Bentley, 1996: A case study of the 8-9 July 1993 Great Plains derecho. Preprints, 18th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, San Francisco, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 531-534.

Cummine, J., P. McCarthy, and M. Leduc, 1992: Blowdown over northwestern Ontario: A derecho event - 18 July 1991. Preprints, 4th Workshop on Operational Meteorology, Whistler, British Columbia, Canada, Atmos. Environ. Service/Canadian Meteor. and Oceanogr. Soc., 311-317.

Duke, J. W., and J. A. Rogash, 1992: Multiscale review of the development and early evolution of the 9 April 1991 derecho. Wea. Forecasting, 7, 623-634.

Evans, J. S., and S. F. Corfidi, 2000: Genesis and evolution of the 4 June 1999 derecho. Preprints, 20th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Orlando, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 405-408.

Fujita, T. T., and R. M. Wakimoto, 1981: Five scales of airflow associated with a series of downbursts on 16 July 1980. Mon. Wea. Rev.,109, 1438-1456.

Gallus, W. A., Jr., J. Corriea Jr., and I. Jankov, 2005: The 4 June 1999 derecho event: A particularly difficult challenge for numerical weather prediction. Wea. Forecasting, 20, 705-728.

Gatzen, C., 2004: A derecho in Europe: Berlin, 10 July 2002. Wea. Forecasting, 19, 639-645.

Johns, R. H., and W. D. Hirt, 1985: The derecho of 19-20 July 1983...A case study. Natl. Wea. Digest, 10, 3, 17-32.

Keighton, S., S. Noqueira, and N. Belk, 2001: Synoptic and mesoscale analysis of the 9 August 2000 Appalachian-crossing derechos. Preprints, 18th Conf. on Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 439-443.

Mainville, S., 1999: The derecho of 4-5 July 1999 in southern Quebec. Technical Note, Quebec Region, 99N-04, Environment Canada.

Price, C., and B. Murphy, 2002: Lightning activity during the 1999 Superior Derecho, Geophysical Res. Lett., 29(23), 57.1-57.4.

Punkka, A-J., and J. Teittinen, 2004: The severe thunderstorm outbreak in Finland on 5 July 2002. Preprints, 22nd Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Hyannis, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc, Paper P4.9, 7 pp.

Rockwood, A. A., and R. A. Maddox, 1988: Mesoscale and synoptic scale interactions leading to intense convection: The case of 7 June 1982. Wea. Forecasting, 3, 51-68.

Schmidt, J.M., and W. R. Cotton, 1989: A High Plains squall line associated with severe surface winds. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, No. 3, 281-302.

Spoden, P. J., C. N. Jones, J. Keysor, and M. Lamm, 1998: Observations of flow structure and mesocale circulations associated with the 5 May 1996 asymmetric derecho in the lower Ohio valley. Preprints, 19th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Minneapolis, MN, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 514-517.

Teittinen, J. and A-J. Punkka, 2004: Severe thunderstorm radar signatures of 5 July 2002 derecho in Finland. Preprints, 22nd Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Hyannis, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc, Paper 7A.4, 4 pp.

Wolf, R. A., 2000: Characteristics of circulations associated with the 29 June 1998 derecho in eastern Iowa. Preprints, 20th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Orlando, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 56-59.



Climatology (bows and derechos)

Ashley, W. S., T. L. Mote, and M. L. Bentley, 2004: Derecho families. Preprints, 22nd Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Hyannis, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc, Paper P4.4, 6 pp.

Bentley, M. L., and T. L. Mote, 1998: A climatology of derecho-producing mesoscale convective systems in the central and eastern United States 1986-95. Part I: Temporal and spatial distribution .em> Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, 2527-2540.

Bentley, M. L., and T. L. Mote, 2000a: Reply to "Comments on a climatology of derecho-producing mesoscale convective systems in the central and eastern United States, 1986-1995 Part I: Temporal and spatial distribution.". Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81, 1055-1060

Bentley, M. L., and T. L. Mote, 2000b: A synoptic climatology of cool-season derecho events. Physical Geography, 21, 21-37

Bentley, M. L., T. L. Mote, and S. F. Byrd, 2000: A synoptic climatology of derecho producing mesoscale convective systems in the north-central Plains. Int. J. Climatol., 20, 1329-1349.

Bentley, M. L., and J. M. Sparks, 2003: A 15 year climatology of derecho-producing mesoscale convective systems over the central and eastern United States. Clim. Research, 24, 129-139.

Burke, P. C., and D. M. Schultz, 2004: A climatology of cold-season bow echoes over the continental United States. Wea. Forecasting, 19, 1061-1074.

Coniglio, M.C., and D. J. Stensrud, 2004: Interpreting the climatology of derechos.Wea. Forecasting, 19, 595-605.

Johns, R. H., and J. S. Evans, 2000: Comments on "A climatology of derecho-producing mesoscale convective systems in the central and eastern United States, 1986-1995. Part I: Temporal and spatial distribution". Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81, 1049-1054.

Peterson, R. E., and A. M. Dewan, 2002: Damaging Nor'westers in Bangladesh. Preprints, 21st Conf. on Severe Local Storms, San Antonio, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc.,389-392.



Derechos and their environments - Observational studies

Bosart, L. F., W. E. Bracken, A. Seimon, J. W. Cannon, K. D. LaPenta, and J. S. Quinlan, 1999: The evolution of warm season continental anticyclones and their contribution to derecho environments. Preprints, 17th Conf. on Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Denver, CO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 100-103.

Cohen, A. E., M. C. Coniglio, S. F. Corfidi, and S. J. Corfidi, 2007: Discrimination of mesoscale convective system environments using sounding observations. Wea. Forecasting, 22, 1045-1062.

Coniglio, M. C., D. J. Stensrud, and M. B. Richman, 2004: An observational study of derecho-producing convective systems. Wea. Forecasting, 19, 320-337.

Coniglio, M. C., S. F. Corfidi, and J. S. Kain, 2012: Views on applying RKW theory: An illustration using the 8 May 2009 derecho-producing convective system. Mon. Wea. Rev.,140, 1023-1043.

Corfidi, S. F., S. J. Corfidi, D.A. Imy, and A. Logan, 2006: A preliminary study of severe wind-producing MCSs in environments of limited moisture. Wea. Forecasting, 21,715-734.

Doswell, C. A. III, and J. S. Evans, 2003: Proximity sounding analysis for derechos and supercells: An assessment of similarities and differences. Atmos. Research, 67-68, 117-133.

Evans, J. S., and C. A. Doswell III, 2001: Examination of derecho environments using proximity soundings. Wea. Forecasting, 16, 329-342.

Honikman, S. F., A. C. Cacciola, T. J. Galarneau, and L. F. Bosart, 2000: Forecasting synoptic and mesoscale environments for tornadoes and derechos in the northeastern United States. Preprints, 20th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Orlando, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 509-512.

Johns, R. H., K. W. Howard, and R. A. Maddox, 1990: Conditions associated with long-lived derechos - An examination of the large-scale environment. Preprints, 16th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Kananaskis Park, AB, Canada, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 408-412.

Klimowski, B. A., M. J. Bunkers, M. R. Hjelmfelt, and J. N. Covert, 2003: Severe convective windstorms over the northern High Plains of the United States. Wea. Forecasting, 18, 502-519.



Evolution of derecho-producing convective systems from supercells

Johns, R. H., and P. W. Leftwich, Jr., 1988: The severe thunderstorm outbreak of July 28-29, 1986: A case exhibiting both isolated supercells and a derecho producing convective system. Preprints, 15th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Baltimore, MD, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 448-451.

Smith, B. E., 1990: Mesoscale structure of a derecho-producing convective system: The southern Great Plains storm of 4 May 1989. Preprints, 16th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Kananaskis Park, AB, Canada, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 455-460.



Forecasting

Coniglio, M. C., H. E. Brooks, S. J. Weiss, and S. F. Corfidi, 2007: Forecasting the maintenance of quasi-linear mesoscale convective systems. Wea. Forecasting, 22, 556-570.

Corfidi, S. F., 2003: Cold pools and MCS propagation: Forecasting the motion of downwind-developing MCSs. Wea. Forecasting, 18, 265-285.

Corfidi, S., F., J. H. Merritt, and J. M Fritsch,1996: Predicting the movement of mesoscale convective complexes. Wea. Forecasting, 11, 41-46.

Johns, R. H., and C. A. Doswell III, 1992: Severe local storms forecasting. Wea. Forecasting, 7, 588-612.

Porter, J. M., L. L. Means, J. E. Hovde, and W. B. Chappell, 1955: A synoptic study on the formation of squall lines in the North Central United States. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 36, 390-396.



General studies and reviews (bows and derechos)

Johns, R. H., and W. D. Hirt, 1987: Derechos: widespread convectively induced windstorms. Wea. Forecasting, 2, 32-49.

Przybylinski, R. W., 1995: The bow echo: Observations, numerical simulations, and severe weather detection methods. Wea. Forecasting, 10, 203-218.

Wakimoto, R. M. 2001: Convectively driven high wind events. Severe Convective Storms, Meteor. Monogr., No. 50, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 255-298.

Weisman, M. L., 2001: Bow echoes: A tribute to T. T. Fujita. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82, 97-116.



Hazards of convective wind events

Ashley, W. S., and T. L. Mote, 2004: Hazards of long-lived convectively generated high winds in the United States. Preprints, 22nd Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Hyannis, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc, Paper 7A.2, 5 pp.

Ashley, W. S., and T. L. Mote, 2005: Derecho hazards in the United States. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86, 1577-1592.



Numerical simulations (bows and derechos)

Bryan, G. H., J. C. Knievel, and M. D. Parker, 2006: A multimodel assessment of RKW theory's relevance to squall-line characteristics. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 2772-2792.

Coniglio, M. C., and D. J. Stensrud, 2001: Simulation of a progressive derecho using composite initial conditions. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 1593-1616.

Coniglio, M. C., D. J. Stensrud, and L. J. Wicker, 2006: Effects of upper-level shear on the structure and maintenance of strong quasi-linear mesoscale convective systems. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 1231-1252.

Coniglio, M. C., J. Y. Hwang, and D. J. Stensrud, 2010: Environmental Factors in the Upscale Growth and Longevity of MCSs Derived from Rapid Update Cycle Analyses. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 3514-3539.

Finley, C. A., W. R. Cotton, and R. A. Pielke, 2001: Numerical simulation of tornadogenesis in a high-precipitation supercell. Part I: Storm evolution and transition into a bow echo.J. Atmos.Sci., 58, 1597-1629.

Frame, J., and P. Markowski, 2006: The interaction of simulated squall lines with idealized mountain ranges. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 1919-1941.

James, R. P., and P. M. Markowski, 2010: A numerical investigation of the effects of dry air aloft on deep convection. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 140-161.

James, R. P., P. M. Markowski, and J. M. Fritsch, 2006: Bow echo sensitivity to ambient moisture and cold pool strength. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 950-964.

Mahoney, K. M., G. M. Lackman, and M. D. Parker, 2009: The role of momentum transport in the motion of a quasi-idealized mesoscale convective system. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 3316-3338.

Parker, M. D., and R. H. Johnson, 2004: Structures and dynamics of quasi-2D mesoscale convective systems. J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 545-567.

Rotunno, R.J., J. B. Klemp, and M. L. Weisman, 1988: A theory for strong, long-lived squall lines. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 463-485.

Schenkman, A. D., M, Xue, and A. Shapiro, 2012: Tornadogenesis in a simulated mesovortex within a mesoscale convective system. J. Atmos. Sci., 69, 3372-3390.

Schmidt, J. M., C. J. Tremback, and W. R. Cotton: 1990: Numerical simulations of a derecho event. Preprints, 16th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Kananaskis, Park, AB, Canada, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 422-427.

Stensrud, D. J., M. C. Coniglio, R. P. Davies-Jones, and J. S. Evans, 2005: Comments on "A Theory for Strong Long-Lived Squall Lines" Revisited. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 2989-2996.

Weisman, M. L., 1993: The genesis of severe, long-lived bow echoes. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 645-670.

Weisman, M. L. and R. J. Rotunno, 2004: "A theory for strong long-lived squall lines" revisited. J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 361-382.

Weisman, M. L., C. E. Evans, and L. Bosart, 2013: The 8 May 2009 Superderecho: Analysis of a real-time explicit convective forecast. Wea. Forecasting., 28, 863-892.



Supercells and other vortices in bows and derechos

Atkins, N. T., and M. St. Laurent, 2009: Bow echo mesovortices, Part I: Processes that influence their damaging wind potential. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 1497-1513.

Atkins, N. T., and M. St. Laurent, 2009: Bow echo mesovortices, Part II: Their genesis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 1514-1532.

Brooks, H. E., and C. A. Doswell III, 1993: Extreme winds in high-precipitation supercells. Preprints, 17th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, St. Louis, MO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 173-177.

Davis, C. A. and S. B. Trier, 2007: Mesoscale convective vortices observed during BAMEX. Part I: Kinematic and thermodynamic structure. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 2029-2049.

French, A. J., and M. D. Parker, 2012: Observations of mergers between squall lines and isolated supercell thunderstorms. Wea. Forecasting, 27, 255-278.

Klimowski, B. A., M. R. Hjelmfelt, and M. J. Bunkers, 2004: Radar observations of the early evolution of bow echoes. Wea. Forecasting, 19, 727734.

Miller, D. J., D. L. Andra, Jr., J. S. Evans, and R. H. Johns, 2002: Observations of the 27 May 2001 high-end derecho event in Oklahoma. Preprints, 21st Conf. on Severe Local Storms, San Antonio, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 13-16.

Miller, D. J., and R. H. Johns, 2000: A detailed look at extreme wind damage in derecho events. Preprints, 20th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Orlando, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 52-55.

Przybylinski, R. W., and D. M. DeCaire, 1985: Radar signatures associated with the derecho, a type of mesoscale convective system. Preprints, 14th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Indianapolis, IN, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 228-231.

Trapp, R. J., and M. L. Weisman, 2003: Low-level mesovortices within squall lines and bow echoes. Part II: Their genesis and implications. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 28042823.

Trapp, R. J., S. A. Tessendor, E. S. Godfrey, and H. E. Brooks, 2005: Tornadoes from squall lines and bow echoes. Part I: Climatological distribution. Wea. Forecasting, 20, 2334.

Weisman, M. L., and R. J. Trapp, 2003: Low-level mesovortices within squall lines and bow echoes. Part I: Overview and dependence on environmental shear. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 27792803.

Weisman, M. L., and C. A. Davis, 1998: Mechanisms for the generation of mesoscale vortices within quasi-linear convective systems. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 26032622.

Wolf, P. L., 1998: WSR-88D radar depiction of supercell-bow echo interaction: Unexpected evolution of a large, tornadic, comma-shaped supercell over eastern Oklahoma. Wea. Forecasting, 13, 492504.



Official record of U.S. severe weather reports

Storm Data... A monthly publication prepared by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, NC.

 

Origin of the terms "Bow Echo" and "Derecho"

Fujita, 1978: Manual of downburst identification for project NIMROD. Satellite and Mesometeorology Res. Pap. No. 156, University of Chicago, Dept. of Geophysical Sciences, pp. 104.

Hinrichs, G., 1888: Tornadoes and derechos. Amer. Meteor. J., 5, 306-317, 341-349.



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