F-Scale Exercise on Spencer Damage

Selected Scene 5 Slides and Comments by Respondents

Click on thumbnail for full size slide.

Slide 28 Slide 29 Slide 30 Slide 31

F3: Trees still standing.

F4: The water tower having been taken down is impressive.

F4: Poorly anchored building blown off foundation & blown apart. Would have been F3 but water tower makes it F4.

F3: Poor construction -- but swept away.

F3: Building gone, poor ties, truck in place.

F3/F4: Borderline. Would be F5 but attachment was very suspect. Fire station may have just popped loose intact, & even F4 not consistent with unmoved trucks.

F3: 1/4" bolts without washers would only be F3.

F3/F4: Depends on where car originated! Stripped/debarked tree.

F4: Water tower most likely well anchored; however, fire truck remains. Still, possible F5.

F2: Poor anchoring. Could have been lifted off easily.

F2/F3: But car was moved? Trucks were still there, gloves still there, no washers or nuts.

F3: Fire station walls and roof removed...almost F4...but too much debris remaining on slab.

F3: Fire station & water tower removed. Trucks hardly damaged, though.

F3: Water tower collapsed, possible by fire station. Fire station removed -- trucks in place with littl damage. 1/4" anchor bolts, no washers, not well anchored.

F3: Big building flying.

F3: Water tower? I don't know enough about it.

F5: Displaced auto near water tower suggests sustained transport of very large projectile.

F2: Trucks in place. Some trees behind were stripped but some were not.

F2: Unsupported or weakly supported frame. Not much damage.

F3: Structures not as sound as they could be (no washers etc.). Water tower probably got hit by debris, destroying supports.

F2: Bolts not bent.

F4: Firehouse = large missile, but not well anchored

F3: Water tower is top heavy & leggy & presents a considerable wind load.... Gloves are a curiosity -- left in place.

F3: Toughest rating!

F2: Damage largely resulted from less than adequate foundation anchoring.

F2: The fire trucks weren't moved at all. The fire station, hwoever, was lifted up and thrown into the water tower.

F3: Because it did not move the trucks,

F3: Weird! Structure again not bolted/anchored properly.

F4: Cars thrown, fire station also thrown.

F4: Water tower - incidental.

F0: I don't think it would take too much to make a top heavy water tower fall over (maybe should be F1).

F2: Rural fire stations do not normally meet the description of well-built structures; roll-up doors typically allow winds to easily get inside the building, then roof & walls destroyed once winds inside the building.

F4: Airborne automobile.

F3: Even if the bolts weren't correctly set up, I still think it takes a lot of power to throw a building.

F2: Since the water tower was well secured (it seemed) & full of water it would take a very strong amount of wind or a very heavy object traveling at a great speed (the fire station) to knock it over.


Lubbock	        Scene 5

Sample Size	64	
Min F Scale:    1	
Max F Scale:    5	
# F Scales:     5	  
Mean F Scale    3.03125
Standard Dev-
iation of F:	0.779999	

Norman	        Scene 5

Sample Size	104	
Min F Scale:    1	
Max F Scale:    5	
# F Scales:     5	  
Mean F Scale    3.072115
Standard Dev-
iation of F:	0.840187	

St. Louis       Scene 5

Sample Size	27	
Min F Scale:    1	
Max F Scale:    4	
# F Scales:     4	  
Mean F Scale    2.925926
Standard Dev-
iation of F:	0.780824	


Back to Damage Analysis Exercise Page

Back to Spencer Damage Photos

Back to Main Spencer Tornado Page